Thursday, January 2, 2014

71 new papers reported in 2013 demonstrating the Sun controls climate, not man-made CO2

Club du Soleil has compiled a listing of new papers published during 2013 demonstrating that the Sun controls climate, not man-made CO2. Visit Club du Soleil for many more published in 2012 and earlier.

These papers don't exist according to paid climate propagandist John Cook of SS 

Papers Reported in 2013:

Deep Solar Activity Minima, Sharp Climate Changes, and Their Impact on Ancient Civilizations

Raspopov et al. 2013  
It is shown that, over the past c. 10000 years (the Holocene), deep Maunder type solar minima have been accompanied by sharp climate changes. These minima occurred every 2300-2400 years. It has been established experimentally that, at ca 4.0 ka BP, there occurred a global change in the structure of atmo spheric circulation, which coincided in time with the discharge of glacial masses from Greenland to North Atlantic and a solar activity minimum. The climate changes that took place at ca 4.0 ka BP and the deep solar activity minimum that occurred at ca 2.5 ka BP affected the development of human society, leading to the degradation and destruction of a number of ancient civilizations.

Late Holocene ecohydrological and carbon dynamics of a UK raised bog: impact of human activity and climate change

Turner et al. 2014   Quaternary Science Reviews
Understanding the ecohydrological responses of peatlands to climate change is particularly challenging over the late Holocene owing to the confounding influence of anthropogenic activity. To address this, a core spanning the last c. 2400 years from a raised bog in northern England was analysed using a comprehensive suite of proxy methods in an attempt to elucidate the drivers of change. A testate amoebae-based transfer function was used to quantitatively reconstruct changes in water table depth, supported by humification analysis and a plant macrofossil-derived hydroclimatic index. Pollen and plant macrofossil data were used to examine regional and local vegetation change, and human impacts were inferred from charcoal and geochemistry. Chronological control was achieved through a Bayesian age-depth model based on AMS radiocarbon dates and spheroidal carbonaceous particles, from which peat and carbon accumulation rates were calculated. Phases of both increased and decreased bog surface wetness (inferred effective precipitation) are present, with dry phases at c. AD 320-830, AD 920-1190 and AD 1850-present, and a marked period of increased effective precipitation at c. AD 1460-1850. Coherence with other records from across Northern Europe suggests that these episodes are primarily driven by allogenic climatic change. Periods of high bog surface wetness correspond to the Wolf, Sporer and Maunder sunspot activity minima, suggesting solar forcing was a significant driver of climate change over the last c. 1000 years. Following the intensification of agriculture and industry over the last two centuries, the combined climatic and anthropogenic forcing effects become increasingly difficult to separate due to increases in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically derived pollutants, fertilising compounds, and additions of wind-blown soil dust. We illustrate the need for multiproxy approaches based on high-resolution palaeoecology and geochemistry to examine the recent trajectories of peatlands.

The role of the oceans in shaping the tropospheric response to the 11 year solar cycle

Misios and Schmidt 2014   Geophysical Research Letters
Observational data indicate a weakening and poleward shift of the subtropical tropospheric jets in the maximum phase of the 11 year solar cycle, commonly explained in terms of a direct "top-down" propagation of solar signals from the stratosphere to the troposphere. We here demonstrate possible linkages to oceanic variability, instead. The observed response of the jets is qualitatively and quantitatively reproduced in an ensemble of simulations with a global model forced only at the lower boundary by the observed sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations, while keeping solar cycle forcing constant. The twentieth century reanalysis, in which only surface observations are assimilated, is characterized by a similar shift of the jets. These findings suggest that changes at the ocean surface could contribute considerably to the poleward shift of the subtropical tropospheric jets, although a top-down influence on the oceans and hence indirectly on the jets cannot be excluded.

A lagged response to the 11 year solar cycle in observed winter Atlantic/European weather patterns

Gray et al. 2014   Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
The surface response to 11 year solar cycle variations is investigated by analyzing the long-term mean sea level pressure and sea surface temperature observations for the period 1870-2010. The analysis reveals a statistically significant 11 year solar signal over Europe, and the North Atlantic provided that the data are lagged by a few years. The delayed signal resembles the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) following a solar maximum. The corresponding sea surface temperature response is consistent with this. A similar analysis is performed on long-term climate simulations from a coupled ocean-atmosphere version of the Hadley Centre model that has an extended upper lid so that influences of solar variability via the stratosphere are well resolved. The model reproduces the positive NAO signal over the Atlantic/European sector, but the lag of the surface response is not well reproduced. Possible mechanisms for the lagged nature of the observed response are discussed.

Reviewing the effect of CO2 and the sun on global climate

Florides et al. 2013   Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
This paper discusses the effect of the greenhouse phenomenon and CO2 on global climate and suggests that numerical models that lack adequate knowledge of fundamental related factors cannot be used to extract "sound" conclusions. A very basic demonstration of this is done through a simple comparison between estimates of the forecast for global temperature increase obtained by various independent studies. Observing the global temperature and the CO2 atmospheric concentration though the geological aeons implies no obvious correlation. Physical observation on other planets like Mars and Venus, needing no numerical modeling, demonstrates the effect of the atmospheric-CO2 partial pressure on the temperature of the atmosphere. Moreover the CO2 role as a factor of danger or a benefactor for life is also addressed. On the other hand the role of the sun in the presently observed global warming has been greatly underestimated. Scientific evidence shows that the orbit of the earth and the Milankovitch cycles greatly affect the climate. A discussion follows pointing out the prime role that the sun should have on the earth's climate with regard to solar cycles' activity and irradiance, cosmic rays and cloud formation. The conclusion drawn here is that a natural signal of solar forcing has been mistakenly overlooked for an anthropogenic change, maybe owing to their quite similar effects on climate. For the moment science does not really have a complete and total understanding of the factors affecting the earth's complex climate system and therefore no sound conclusions can be drawn.

Influence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation and solar forcing on climate and primary productivity changes in the northeast Pacific

Patterson et al. 2013   Quaternary International
Evidence of 11-year Schwabe solar sunspot cycles, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) were detected in an annual record of diatomaceous laminated sediments from anoxic Effingham Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Radiometric dating and counting of annual varves dates the sediments from AD 1947-1993. Intact sediment slabs were X-rayed for sediment structure (lamina thickness and composition based on gray-scale), and subsamples were examined for diatom abundances and for grain size. Wavelet analysis reveals the presence of c. 2-3, 4.5, 7 and 9-12 year cycles in the diatom record and an c. 11-13 year record in the sedimentary varve thickness record. These cycle lengths suggest that both ENSO and the sunspot cycle had an influence on primary productivity and sedimentation patterns. Sediment grain size could not be correlated to the sunspot cycle although a peak in the grain size data centered around the mid-1970s may be related to the 1976-1977 Pacific climate shift, which occurred when the PDO index shifted from negative (cool conditions) to positive (warm conditions). Additional evidence of the PDO regime shift is found in wavelet and cross-wavelet results for Skeletonema costatum, a weakly silicified variant of S. costatum, annual precipitation and April to June precipitation. Higher spring (April/May) values of the North Pacific High pressure index during sunspot minima suggest that during this time, increased cloud cover and concomitant suppression of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure system led to strengthened coastal upwelling and enhanced diatom production earlier in the year. These results suggest that the 11-year solar cycle, amplified by cloud cover and upwelling changes, as well as ENSO, exert significant influence on marine primary productivity in the northeast Pacific. The expression of these cyclic phenomena in the sedimentary record were in turn modulated by the phase of PDO, as indicated by the change in period of ENSO and suppression of the solar signal in the record after the 1976-1977 regime shift.

Prediction of solar activity for the next 500 years

Steinhilber and Beer 2013   Journal of Geophysical Research
Recently, a new low-noise record of solar activity has been reconstructed for the past 10 149400 years by combining two Be records from Greenland and Antarctica with C from tree rings [Steinhilber et al., 2012]. This record confirms earlier results, namely, that the Sun has varied with distinct periodicities in the past. We present a prediction of mean solar magnetic activity averaged over 22 years for the next 500 years mainly based on the spectral information derived from the solar activity record of the past. Assuming that the Sun will continue to vary with the same periodicities for the next centuries, we extract the spectral information from the past and apply it to two different methods to predict the future of solar magnetic activity. First, the two methods are tested by predicting past changes. Our methods are able to predict periods of high and low solar activities for a few centuries in the past. However, they are less successful in predicting the correct amplitude. Then, the methods were used to predict the period 2000-2500. Both methods predict a period of low activity around 2100 A.D. Between 2100 and 2350 A.D., the results are inconsistent regarding the duration of the low-activity state in 2100 A.D. and the level of activity until 2250 A.D. Around 2250 A.D., both methods predict a period of moderate activity. After 2350 A.D., both methods point to a period of high activity. The period of high activity will end around 2400 A.D. and will be followed by a period of moderate activity.

Lengths of Schwabe cycles in the seventh and eighth centuries indicated by precise measurement of carbon-14 content in tree rings

Miyake et al. 2013   Journal of Geophysical Research
Radiocarbon (14C) is produced in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic rays, which are modulated by solar magnetic activity. Its content in tree rings is retained and provides a record of past cosmic ray intensity and solar activity. We have measured, with 2 year resolution, the 14C content in Japanese cedar tree rings for the period A.D. 600 to 760, which includes a small grand solar minimum in the seventh to eighth centuries. Periodicity analysis of the 14C data shows that there is a component in the frequency band of the Schwabe cycle, with a period of 12-13 years continuing throughout the minimum. This is the fourth case in which an increase in the length of the Schwabe cycle has been observed in a grand solar minimum, after the Maunder Minimum, the Spoerer Minimum, and the Fourth Century B.C. Minimum.

Global temperatures and sunspot numbers. Are they related?

Gil-Alana et al. 2013   Physica A
This paper deals with the analysis of global temperatures and sunspot numbers and the relationship between the two. We use techniques based on the concept of long range dependence. For the temperatures, the best specification seems to be a fractionally integrated or I(d) model with an order of integration d of about 0.46 and an estimated time trend coefficient that suggests that temperatures have increased by about 0.57 C over the last one hundred years. However, for the sunspot numbers, a cyclical fractional model seems to be more appropriate, with a periodicity of 11 years per cycle and an order of integration of about 0.40. Thus, the two series display long memory and fractional integration. However, the fact that both series display poles in the spectrum at different frequencies implies that we fail to reject the null hypothesis of no relationship between the two variables in the long run. Moreover, assuming that the sunspots are exogenous, the results show no statistical significance of this variable on the global temperatures, which is one of the main contributions of the present work.

Does the diurnal temperature range respond to changes in the cosmic ray flux?

Laken and Calogovic 2013   Environmental Research Letters 8, 045018
Recent studies have suggested that measurements of the diurnal temperature range (DTR) over Europe may provide evidence of a long-hypothesized link between the cosmic ray (CR) flux and cloud cover. Such propositions are interesting, as previous investigations of CR-cloud links are limited by data issues including long-term reliability and view-angle artifacts in satellite-based cloud measurements. Consequently, the DTR presents a further independent opportunity for assessment. Claims have been made that during infrequent high-magnitude increases (ground level enhancements, GLE) and decreases (Forbush decreases, Fd) in the CR flux significant anti-correlated DTR changes may be observed, and the magnitude of the DTR deviations increases with the size of the CR disturbance. If confirmed this may have important consequences for the estimation of natural climate forcing. We analyze these claims, and conclude that no statistically significant fluctuations in DTR (p < 0.05) are observed. Using detailed Monte Carlo significance testing we show that past claims to the contrary result from a methodological error in estimating significance connected to the effects of sub-sampling.

Terrestrial ground temperature variations in relation to solar magnetic variability, including the present Schwabe cycle

de Jager and Nieuwenhuijzen 2013   Natural Science 5, 1112-1120
We study the influence of solar activity on climate by investigating the relation between the long-term components of the total magnetic fluxes of both the equatorial and polar fields of the sun and the average terrestrial ground temperature. This is done for the period 1610 (beginning of systematic sunspot observations) till present with an extrapolation to 2015. It is found that from 1610 till about the first half of the 20th century the variation of the long-term average terrestrial ground temperatures is chiefly due to the variation of solar activity, with seemingly random, non-solar residuals. Around 2007, after the Grand Maximum of the 20th century, solar activity, after having gone through a remarkable transition period (c. 2005 to c. 2010), entered into another Grand Episode. That Episode started with the present solar cycle, in shape comparable to the equally weak Schwabe cycle #14. The transition period, in combination with the present low Schwabe cycle causes that the solar contribution to the total terrestrial temperature variation is small during the on-going decade. It results in a slowing down of the rise of temperature after c. 2005.

Holocene flood frequency across the Central Alps - solar forcing and evidence for variations in North Atlantic atmospheric circulation

Wirth et al. 2013   Quaternary Science Reviews 80, 112-128
The frequency of large-scale heavy precipitation events in the European Alps is expected to undergo substantial changes with current climate change. Hence, knowledge about the past natural variability of floods caused by heavy precipitation constitutes important input for climate projections. We present a comprehensive Holocene (10,000 years) reconstruction of the flood frequency in the Central European Alps combining 15 lacustrine sediment records. These records provide an extensive catalog of flood deposits, which were generated by flood-induced underflows delivering terrestrial material to the lake floors. The multi-archive approach allows suppressing local weather patterns, such as thunderstorms, from the obtained climate signal. We reconstructed mainly late spring to fall events since ice cover and precipitation in form of snow in winter at high-altitude study sites do inhibit the generation of flood layers. We found that flood frequency was higher during cool periods, coinciding with lows in solar activity. In addition, flood occurrence shows periodicities that are also observed in reconstructions of 14C and 10B solar activity from C and Be records (2500-3000, 900-1200, as well as of about 710, 500, 350, 208 (Suess cycle), 150, 104 and 87 (Gleissberg cycle) years). As atmospheric mechanism, we propose an expansion/shrinking of the Hadley cell with increasing/decreasing air temperature, causing dry/wet conditions in Central Europe during phases of high/low solar activity. Furthermore, differences between the flood patterns from the Northern Alps and the Southern Alps indicate changes in North Atlantic circulation. Enhanced flood occurrence in the South compared to the North suggests a pronounced southward position of the Westerlies and/or blocking over the northern North Atlantic, hence resembling a negative NAO state (most distinct from 4.2 to 2.4 kyr BP and during the Little Ice Age). South-Alpine flood activity therefore provides a qualitative record of variations in a paleo-NAO pattern during the Holocene. Additionally, increased South Alpine flood activity contrasts to low precipitation in tropical Central America (Cariaco Basin) on the Holocene and centennial time scale. This observation is consistent with a Holocene southward migration of the Atlantic circulation system, and hence of the ITCZ, driven by decreasing summer insolation in the Northern hemisphere, as well as with shorter-term fluctuations probably driven by solar activity.

Paleoclimate data-model comparison and the role of climate forcings over the past 1500 years

Phipps et al. 2013   Journal of Climate 26, 6915-6936
The past 1500 years provide a valuable opportunity to study the response of the climate system to external forcings. However, the integration of paleoclimate proxies with climate modeling is critical to improving the understanding of climate dynamics. In this paper, a climate system model and proxy records are therefore used to study the role of natural and anthropogenic forcings in driving the global climate. The inverse and forward approaches to paleoclimate data-model comparison are applied, and sources of uncertainty are identified and discussed. In the first of two case studies, the climate model simulations are compared with multiproxy temperature reconstructions. Robust solar and volcanic signals are detected in Southern Hemisphere temperatures, with a possible volcanic signal detected in the Northern Hemisphere. The anthropogenic signal dominates during the industrial period. It is also found that seasonal and geographical biases may cause multiproxy reconstructions to overestimate the magnitude of the long-term preindustrial cooling trend. In the second case study, the model simulations are compared with a coral d18O record from the central Pacific Ocean. It is found that greenhouse gases, solar irradiance, and volcanic eruptions all influence the mean state of the central Pacific, but there is no evidence that natural or anthropogenic forcings have any systematic impact on El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The proxy climate relationship is found to change over time, challenging the assumption of stationarity that underlies the interpretation of paleoclimate proxies. These case studies demonstrate the value of paleoclimate data-model comparison but also highlight the limitations of current techniques and demonstrate the need to develop alternative approaches.

Solar forcing of Caribbean drought events during the last millennium

Burn and Palmer 2013   Journal of Quaternary Science
Anthropogenic climate change is expected to increase the frequency of drought events in the earth's subtropical regions. However, the climate dynamics of these regions are not fully understood and debate surrounds how external forcing factors such as solar and volcanic forcing influence long-term rainfall patterns in the subtropics. Here, we present the first high-resolution reconstruction of Caribbean drought events over the last millennium based on analyses of sediment geochemical data from a continuous high-resolution coastal lake-sediment record in Jamaica. The record suggests extended episodes of drought occurred during the so-called Little Ice Age (1400-1850 CE), which were associated with El-Nino-like conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and controlled by low natural radiative forcing. Comparison of the Jamaican drought record with previously published palaeoclimatic archives from within the circum-Caribbean region suggests that dry conditions were associated with the southward migration of the Hadley Cell, a stronger North Atlantic High and the concomitant intensification of the north-east trade winds and the Caribbean Low Level Jet. We conclude that pre-industrial climatic change in the region was probably controlled by solar forcing and modulated by the combined influence of El Nino Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

North-south palaeohydrological contrasts in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene: tentative synthesis and working hypotheses

Magny et al. 2013   Climate of the Past 9, 2043-2071
On the basis of a multi-proxy approach and a strategy combining lacustrine and marine records along a north-south transect, data collected in the central Mediterranean within the framework of a collaborative project have led to reconstruction of high-resolution and well-dated palaeohydrological records and to assessment of their spatial and temporal coherency. Contrasting patterns of palaeohydrological changes have been evidenced in the central Mediterranean: south (north) of around 40N of latitude, the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by lake-level maxima (minima), during an interval dated to ca. 10 300-4500 cal BP to the south and 9000-4500 cal BP to the north. Available data suggest that these contrasting palaeohydrological patterns operated throughout the Holocene, both on millennial and centennial scales. Regarding precipitation seasonality, maximum humidity in the central Mediterranean during the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by humid winters and dry summers north of ca. 40N, and humid winters and summers south of ca. 40N. This may explain an apparent conflict between palaeoclimatic records depending on the proxies used for reconstruction as well as the synchronous expansion of tree species taxa with contrasting climatic requirements. In addition, south of ca. 40N, the first millennium of the Holocene was characterised by very dry climatic conditions not only in the eastern, but also in the central- and the western Mediterranean zones as reflected by low lake levels and delayed reforestation. These results suggest that, in addition to the influence of the Nile discharge reinforced by the African monsoon, the deposition of Sapropel 1 has been favoured (1) by an increase in winter precipitation in the northern Mediterranean borderlands, and (2) by an increase in winter and summer precipitation in the southern Mediterranean area. The climate reversal following the Holocene climate optimum appears to have been punctuated by two major climate changes around 7500 and 4500 cal BP. In the central Mediterranean, the Holocene palaeohydrological changes developed in response to a combination of orbital, ice-sheet and solar forcing factors. The maximum humidity interval in the south-central Mediterranean started ca. 10 300 cal BP, in correlation with the decline (1) of the possible blocking effects of the North Atlantic anticyclone linked to maximum insolation, and/or (2) of the influence of the remnant ice sheets and fresh water forcing in the North Atlantic Ocean. In the north-central Mediterranean, the lake-level minimum interval began only around 9000 cal BP when the Fennoscandian ice sheet disappeared and a prevailing positive NAO-(North Atlantic Oscillation) type circulation developed in the North Atlantic area. The major palaeohydrological oscillation around 4500-4000 cal BP may be a non-linear response to the gradual decrease in insolation, with additional key seasonal and interhemispheric changes. On a centennial scale, the successive climatic events which punctuated the entire Holocene in the central Mediterranean coincided with cooling events associated with deglacial outbursts in the North Atlantic area and decreases in solar activity during the interval 11 700-7000 cal BP, and to a possible combination of NAO-type circulation and solar forcing since ca. 7000 cal BP onwards. Thus, regarding the centennial-scale climatic oscillations, the Mediterranean Basin appears to have been strongly linked to the North Atlantic area and affected by solar activity over the entire Holocene. In addition to model experiments, a better understanding of forcing factors and past atmospheric circulation patterns behind the Holocene palaeohydrological changes in the Mediterranean area will require further investigation to establish additional high-resolution and well-dated records in selected locations around the Mediterranean Basin and in adjacent regions. Special attention should be paid to greater precision in the reconstruction, on millennial and centennial timescales, of changes in the latitudinal location of the limit between the northern and southern palaeohydrological Mediterranean sectors, depending on (1) the intensity and/or characteristics of climatic periods/oscillations (e.g. Holocene thermal maximum versus Neoglacial, as well as, for instance, the 8.2 ka event versus the 4 ka event or the Little Ice Age); and (2) on varying geographical conditions from the western to the eastern Mediterranean areas (longitudinal gradients). Finally, on the basis of projects using strategically located study sites, there is a need to explore possible influences of other general atmospheric circulation patterns than NAO, such as the East Atlantic-West Russian or North Sea-Caspian patterns, in explaining the apparent complexity of palaeoclimatic (palaeohydrological) Holocene records from the Mediterranean area.

A reconstruction of radiocarbon production and total solar irradiance from the Holocene 14C and CO2 records: implications of data and model uncertainties

Roth and Joos 2013   Climate of the Past 9, 1879-1909
Radiocarbon production, solar activity, total solar irradiance (TSI) and solar-induced climate change are reconstructed for the Holocene (10 to 0 kyr BP), and TSI is predicted for the next centuries. The IntCal09/SHCal04 radiocarbon and ice core CO2 records, reconstructions of the geomagnetic dipole, and instrumental data of solar activity are applied in the Bern3D-LPJ, a fully featured Earth system model of intermediate complexity including a 3-D dynamic ocean, ocean sediments, and a dynamic vegetation model, and in formulations linking radiocarbon production, the solar modulation potential, and TSI. Uncertainties are assessed using Monte Carlo simulations and bounding scenarios. Transient climate simulations span the past 21 thousand years, thereby considering the time lags and uncertainties associated with the last glacial termination. Our carbon-cycle-based modern estimate of radiocarbon production of 1.7 atoms cm-2 s-1 is lower than previously reported for the cosmogenic nuclide production model by Masarik and Beer (2009) and is more in line with Kovaltsov et al. (2012). In contrast to earlier studies, periods of high solar activity were quite common not only in recent millennia, but throughout the Holocene. Notable deviations compared to earlier reconstructions are also found on decadal to centennial timescales. We show that earlier Holocene reconstructions, not accounting for the interhemispheric gradients in radiocarbon, are biased low. Solar activity is during 28% of the time higher than the modern average (650 MeV), but the absolute values remain weakly constrained due to uncertainties in the normalisation of the solar modulation to instrumental data. A recently published solar activity-TSI relationship yields small changes in Holocene TSI of the order of 1 W m-2 with a Maunder Minimum irradiance reduction of 0.85 +- 0.16 W m-2. Related solar-induced variations in global mean surface air temperature are simulated to be within 0.1 K. Autoregressive modelling suggests a declining trend of solar activity in the 21st century towards average Holocene conditions.

Reconstruction and Prediction of Variations in the Open Solar Magnetic Flux and Interplanetary Conditions

Lockwood 2013   Living Reviews Solar Physics 10, 4
Historic geomagnetic activity observations have been used to reveal centennial variations in the open solar flux and the near-Earth heliospheric conditions (the interplanetary magnetic field and the solar wind speed). The various methods are in very good agreement for the past 135 years when there were sufficient reliable magnetic observatories in operation to eliminate problems due to site-specific errors and calibration drifts. This review underlines the physical principles that allow these reconstructions to be made, as well as the details of the various algorithms employed and the results obtained. Discussion is included of: the importance of the averaging timescale; the key differences between "range" and "interdiurnal variability" geomagnetic data; the need to distinguish source field sector structure from heliospherically-imposed field structure; the importance of ensuring that regressions used are statistically robust; and uncertainty analysis. The reconstructions are exceedingly useful as they provide calibration between the in-situ spacecraft measurements from the past five decades and the millennial records of heliospheric behaviour deduced from measured abundances of cosmogenic radionuclides found in terrestrial reservoirs. Continuity of open solar flux, using sunspot number to quantify the emergence rate, is the basis of a number of models that have been very successful in reproducing the variation derived from geomagnetic activity. These models allow us to extend the reconstructions back to before the development of the magnetometer and to cover the Maunder minimum. Allied to the radionuclide data, the models are revealing much about how the Sun and heliosphere behaved outside of grand solar maxima and are providing a means of predicting how solar activity is likely to evolve now that the recent grand maximum (that had prevailed throughout the space age) has come to an end.

Discussion on climate oscillations: CMIP5 general circulation models versus a semi-empirical harmonic model based on astronomical cycles

Scafetta 2013   Earth Science Reviews
Power spectra of global surface temperature (GST) records (available since 1850) reveal periodities at about 9.1, 10-11, 19-22 and 59-62 years. Equivalent oscillations are found in numerous multisecular paleoclimatic records. The CMIP5 general circulation models (GCMs), to be used in the 2013 IPCC AR5 report, are analyzed and found not able to reconstruct this variability. In particular, from 2000 to 2013.5 a GST plateau is observed, while the GCMs predicted a warming of about 2 C/century. In contrast, the hypothesis that the climate is regulated by specific natural oscillations better interprets the GST records at multiple time scales. For example, a quasi 60-year natural oscillation explains the 1850-1880, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000 warming periods, the 1880-1910 and 1940-1970 cooling periods and the post 2000 plateau. This hypothesis implies that about 50% of the c. 0.5 C global surface warming observed from 1970 to 2000 was due to natural oscillations of the climate system, not to anthropogenic forcing as modeled by the GCMs. The climate sensitivity to CO2 doubling should be reduced from the claimed 2.0-4.5 C range to 1.0-2.3 C with a likely median of c. 1.5 C instead of c. 3.0 C. Also modern paleoclimatic temperature reconstructions showing a larger preindustrial variability than the hockey-stick shaped temperature reconstructions developed in early 2000 imply a lower anthropogenic effect and a larger solar effect. The observed natural oscillations could be driven by astronomical forcings. The c. 9.1 year oscillation appears to be a combination of long soli-lunar tidal oscillations, while quasi 10-11, 20 and 60 year oscillations are typically found among major solar and heliospheric oscillations driven mostly by Jupiter and Saturn movements. Solar models based on heliospheric oscillations also predict quasi secular (e.g. c. 115 year) and millennial (e.g. c. 983 year) solar oscillations, which hindcast observed climate oscillations during the Holocene. It is proposed a semi-empirical climate model made of six specific astronomical oscillations as constructors of the natural climate variability spanning from the decadal to the millennial scales plus a 50% attenuated radiative warming component deduced from the GCM mean simulation as a measure of the anthropogenic plus volcano effect. The semi-empirical model reconstructs the 1850-2012 climatic patterns significantly better than any CMIP5 GCM simulation. Under the same CMIP5 anthropogenic emission scenarios, the model projects a possible 2000-2100 average warming ranging from about 0.3 C to 1.8 C. This range is significantly below the original CMIP5 GCM ensemble mean projections spanning from about 1 C to 4 C. Future research should better investigate space-climate coupling mechanisms and develop more advanced semi-empirical climate models. HadCRUT3 and HadCRUT4, UAH MSU, RSS MSU, GISS and NCDC temperature reconstructions are analyzed.

On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

Love, 2013   Geophysical Research Letters
We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate, and that this is, specifically, manifest as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat-farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using an historical geomagnetic-activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activitywould be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is "statistically significant". On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat-price and wheat-yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are "insignificant". Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

The role of the Sun in atmosphere-ocean coupling

Roy 2013   International Journal of Climatology
An overview of the processes involved in determining the Sun''s influence on climate is presented in the form of a flow chart. Evidence and hypotheses concerning the combined influences of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and the Solar Cycle on the Hadley and Walker circulations are discussed in the context of atmosphere-ocean coupling, focussing on the Pacific region. It is shown that the Sun plays a crucial role in ocean-atmosphere coupling but that this coupling appears to be disturbed during the latter half of the 20th century, probably related to climate change. The identification of a solar influence can lead to improved skill in prediction so as to better inform communities to address/mitigate some of the crucial issues that are associated with climate change.

Solar and planetary oscillation control on climate change: hind-cast, forecast and a comparison with the CMIP5 GCMs

Scafetta 2013   Energy and Environment 24, 455-496
Global surface temperature records (e.g. HadCRUT4) since 1850 are characterized by climatic oscillations synchronous with specific solar, planetary and lunar harmonics superimposed on a background warming modulation. The latter is related to a long millennial solar oscillation and to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere (e.g. aerosol and greenhouse gases). However, current general circulation climate models, e.g. the CMIP5 GCMs, to be used in the AR5 IPCC Report in 2013, fail to reconstruct the observed climatic oscillations. As an alternate, an empirical model is proposed that uses: (1) a specific set of decadal, multidecadal, secular and millennial astronomic harmonics to simulate the observed climatic oscillations; (2) a 0.45 attenuation of the GCM ensemble mean simulations to model the anthropogenic and volcano forcing effects. The proposed empirical model outperforms the GCMs by better hind-casting the observed 1850-2012 climatic patterns. It is found that: (1) about 50-60% of the warming observed since 1850 and since 1970 was induced by natural oscillations likely resulting from harmonic astronomical forcings that are not yet included in the GCMs; (2) a 2000-2040 approximately steady projected temperature; (3) a 2000-2100 projected warming ranging between 0.3 C and 1.6 C, which is significantly lower than the IPCC GCM ensemble mean projected warming of 1.1 oC to 4.1 oC ; (4) an equilibrium climate sensitivity to CO2 doubling centered in 1.35 oC and varying between 0.9 oC and 2.0 oC.

IPCC underestimates the sun's role in climate change

van Geel and Ziegler 2013   Energy and Environment 24, 431-453
For the understanding of current and future climate change it is a basic pre requisite to properly understand the mechanisms, which controlled climate change after the Last Ice Age. According to the IPCC 5th assessment report (in prep.) the Sun has not been a major driver of climate change during the post-Little Ice Age slow warming, and particularly not during the last 40 years. This statement requires critical review as the IPCC neglects strong paleo-climatologic evidence for the high sensitivity of the climate system to changes in solar activity. This high climate sensitivity is not alone due to variations in total solar irradiance-related direct solar forcing, but also due to additional, so-called indirect solar forcings. These include solar-related chemical-based UV irradiance-related variations in stratospheric temperatures and galactic cosmic ray-related changes in cloud cover and surface temperatures, as well as ocean oscillations, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation that significant affect the climate. As it is still difficult to quantify the relative contribution of combined direct and indirect solar forcing and of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations to the slow warming of the last 40 years, predictions about future global warming based exclusively on anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios are premature. Nevertheless, the cyclical temperature increase of the 20th century coincided with the buildup and culmination of the Grand Solar Maximum that commenced in 1924 and ended in 2008. The anticipated phase of declining solar activity of the coming decades will be a welcome "natural laboratory" to clarify and quantify the present and future role of solar variation in climate change.

Impact of a potential 21st century "grand solar minimum" on surface temperatures and stratospheric ozone

Anet et al. 2013   Geophysical Research Letters
We investigate the effects of a recently proposed 21st century Dalton-minimum-like decline of solar activity on the evolution of Earths' climate and ozone layer. Three sets of 2-member ensemble simulations, radiatively forced by a mid-level emission scenario (IPCC RCP4.5), are performed with the atmosphere-ocean chemistry climate model AOCCM SOCOL3-MPIOM, one with constant solar activity, the other two with reduced solar activity and different strength of the solar irradiance forcing. A future grand solar minimum will reduce the global mean surface warming of 2K between 1986-2005 and 2081-2100 by 0.2 to 0.3 K. Furthermore, the decrease in solar UV radiation leads to a significant delay of stratospheric ozone recovery by 10 years and longer. Therefore, the effects of a solar activity minimum, should it occur, may interfere with international efforts for the protection of global climate and the ozone layer.

A Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction for eastern Canada based on d18O cellulose of Sphagnum mosses from Mer Bleue Bog

El Bilali et al. 2013   The Holocene
We present a c. 9200 yr high-resolution oxygen isotope record of plant cellulose (d18Ocel) from the peat deposits of Mer Bleue Bog, Ontario and apply it as a proxy for paleotemperature reconstruction in Eastern Canada. The results show that d18Ocel of Sphagnum follows the general pattern of the Northern Hemisphere reconstructed paleotemperature record for the last 2000 years at a ratio of c. 0.2%d18Ocel/°C. The d18Ocel record of ombrotrophic phase of Mer Bleue Bog is also in accordance with major features of the Holocene sunspot number reconstruction. Three distinct time intervals have low d18Ocel values: 200-800 cal. BP ("Little Ice Age"); 2800-3400 cal. BP synchronous to a cooling period reported elsewhere in North America; and 4200-4600 cal. BP corresponding to a cooling interval in the North Atlantic region. These cooling periods also correlate well with negative excursions in the Holocene sunspot and cosmogenic 10Be records. A fourth period of low d18Ocel values between AD 1810 and 1820 may be related to the extremely cold summer of 1816 and cooler subsequent years, which occurred in the aftermath of the Tambora volcanic eruption, or possibly cooling associated with the early 19th century Dalton solar minimum. The results also indicate the presence of millennial-scale cycles possibly comparable with the globally recognized Bond cycles that have been correlated to fluctuations in solar irradiance.

A modern Maunder Minimum would not stave off global warming

Schultz 2013   EOS 94, 276
Roughly every 11 years, the Sun's activity swings, a peak-to-peak oscillation in the presence of sunspots on the solar surface. From around 1645 to 1715, however, researchers think that this largely reliable trend in solar activity stalled. Now known as the Maunder Minimum, the period saw not just a prolonged dearth of sunspot activity but also a likely reduction in the output of energy from the Sun. Researchers estimate that the Maunder Minimum could have caused a reduction in solar irradiance of around 0.01% to 0.25%, a shift that contributed to a drop of globally averaged surface air temperature of a few tenths of a degree.

Climate change and decadal to centennial-scale climate periodicities recorded in a late Holocene NE Pacific marine record: Examining the role of solar forcing

Galloway et al. 2013   Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
We present a decadal-scale late Holocene climate record based on diatoms, biogenic silica, and grain size from a 12-m sediment core (VEC02A04) obtained from Frederick Sound in the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex of British Columbia, Canada. Sediments are characterized by graded, massive, and laminated intervals. Laminated intervals are most common between c. 2948-2708 cal. yr BP and c. 1992-1727 cal. yr BP. Increased preservation of laminated sediments and diatom assemblage changes at this time suggest that climate became moderately drier and cooler relative to the preceding and succeeding intervals. Spectral and wavelet analyses are used to test for statistically significant periodicities in time series of proxies of primary production (total diatom abundance, biogenic silica) and hydrology (grain size) preserved in the Frederick Sound record. Periodicities of c. 42-53, 60-70, 82-89, 241-243, and 380 yrs are present. Results are compared to reconstructed sunspot number data of Solanki et al. (2004) using cross wavelet transform to evaluate the role of solar forcing on NE Pacific climate. Significant common power of periodicities between c. 42-60, 70-89, 204-243, and of 380 yrs occur, suggesting that celestial forcing impacted late Holocene climate at Frederick Sound. Replication of the c. 204-243 yr periodicity in sunspot time series is most pronounced between c. 2900 cal. yr BP and c. 2000 cal. yr BP, broadly correlative to the timing of maximum preservation of laminated sedimentary successions and diatom assemblage changes. High solar activity at the Suess/de Vries band may have been manifested as a prolonged westward shift and/or weakening of the Aleutian Low in the mid-late Holocene, which would have diverted fewer North Pacific storms and resulted in the relatively dry conditions reconstructed for the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex.

The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate: A Workshop Report (September 8-9, 2011)

NAS 2012   The National Academies Press, Washington, 71 pp.
On September 8-9, 2011, experts in solar physics, climate models, paleoclimatology, and atmospheric science assembled at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado for a workshop to consider the Sun's variability over time and potential Sun-climate connections. While it does not provide findings, recommendations, or consensus on the current state of the science, The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate: A Workshop Report briefly introduces the primary topics discussed by presenters at the event. As context for these topics, the summary includes background information on the potential Sun-climate connection, the measurement record from space, and potential perturbations of climate due to long-term solar variability. This workshop report also summarizes some of the science questions explored by the participants as potential future research endeavors.

Reconciliation of modeled climate responses to spectral solar forcing

Wen et al. 2013   Journal of Geophysical Research
The SIM (Spectral Irradiance Monitor) on SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment) provides more spectrally complete daily SSI (spectral solar irradiance) measurements than ever before, allowing us to explore chemical and physical processes in the Earth's ocean and atmosphere system. However, the newly observed SSI instigated controversies in the Sun-climate community on whether the SIM-observed trends are true solar variations and on whether climate responses are in phase or out of phase with solar forcing. In this study, we focus on resolving two apparently contradictory results published on possible temperature responses to SIM-derived solar forcing. When applying extreme scenarios of SIM-based spectral solar forcing in a radiative-convective model (RCM), we find that some apparently contradictory results can be explained by the different methods used to apply the SIM SSI data. It is clear that accurate SSI data are essential for accurate climate simulations and that climate modelers need to take care how they apply these data.

Atmospheric annular modes in simulation over the past millennium: No long-term response to external forcing

Gómez-Navarro and Zorita 2013   Geophysical Research Letters 40, 1-5
This study analyzes whether the imprint of external forcings can be detected in the long-term evolution of the main atmospheric circulation patterns in climate simulations over the last millennium. The external forcing is not found to significantly add variability in any frequency band compared to control simulations where the external drivers are kept constant. Additionally, a method designed to detect a common signal in the time evolution of these circulation patterns among all simulations is proposed, and employed to demonstrate that the null hypothesis of an evolution dominated by internal variability cannot be rejected regardless of the time smoothing applied to the series. Given that the fingerprint of external forcings on atmospheric circulation has been successfully detected in simulations of the 20th century climate and in future climate change projections, we argue that either the effect of past natural forcing is too small, state-of-the-art climate models underestimate their climate sensitivity, or the anthropogenic forcing qualitatively differs from the natural forcing in its effect on main circulation patterns.

Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change

Lu, 2012.   International Journal of Modern Physics B 27, 1350073
This study is focused on the effects of cosmic rays (solar activity) and halogen-containing molecules (mainly chlorofluorocarbons - CFCs) on atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change. Brief reviews are first given on the cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced-reaction (CRE) theory for O3 depletion and the warming theory of halogenated molecules for climate change. Then natural and anthropogenic contributions to these phenomena are examined in detail and separated well through in-depth statistical analyses of comprehensive measured datasets of quantities, including cosmic rays (CRs), total solar irradiance, sunspot number, halogenated gases (CFCs, CCl4 and HCFCs), CO2, total O3, lower stratospheric temperatures and global surface temperatures. For O3 depletion, it is shown that an analytical equation derived from the CRE theory reproduces well 11-year cyclic variations of both polar O3 loss and stratospheric cooling, and new statistical analyses of the CRE equation with observed data of total O3 and stratospheric temperature give high linear correlation coefficients >= 0.92. After the removal of the CR effect, a pronounced recovery by 20~25% of the Antarctic O3 hole is found, while no recovery of O3 loss in mid-latitudes has been observed. These results show both the correctness and dominance of the CRE mechanism and the success of the Montreal Protocol. For global climate change, in-depth analyses of the observed data clearly show that the solar effect and human-made halogenated gases played the dominant role in Earth's climate change prior to and after 1970, respectively. Remarkably, a statistical analysis gives a nearly zero correlation coefficient (R = -0.05) between corrected global surface temperature data by removing the solar effect and CO2 concentration during 1850-1970. In striking contrast, a nearly perfect linear correlation with coefficients as high as 0.96-0.97 is found between corrected or uncorrected global surface temperature and total amount of stratospheric halogenated gases during 1970-2012. Furthermore, a new theoretical calculation on the greenhouse effect of halogenated gases shows that they (mainly CFCs) could alone result in the global surface temperature rise of ~0.6°C in 1970-2002. These results provide solid evidence that recent global warming was indeed caused by the greenhouse effect of anthropogenic halogenated gases. Thus, a slow reversal of global temperature to the 1950 value is predicted for coming 5~7 decades. It is also expected that the global sea level will continue to rise in coming 1~2 decades until the effect of the global temperature recovery dominates over that of the polar O3 hole recovery; after that, both will drop concurrently. All the observed, analytical and theoretical results presented lead to a convincing conclusion that both the CRE mechanism and the CFC-warming mechanism not only provide new fundamental understandings of the O3 hole and global climate change but have superior predictive capabilities, compared with the conventional models.

Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium

Asmerom et al. 2013   PNAS
Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350-1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming.

Solar influence on climate variability and human development during the Neolithic: evidence from a high-resolution multi-proxy record from Templevanny Lough, County Sligo, Ireland

Stolze et al. 2013   Quaternary Science Reviews 67, 138-159
The relationship between climatic variations, vegetation dynamics and early human activity between c. 4150-2860 BC was reconstructed from a high-resolution pollen and geochemical record obtained from a small lake located in County Sligo, Ireland. The proxy record suggests the existence of a woodland with a largely closed canopy at the start of the fourth millennium BC. Only minor human disturbance is recorded. Following an episode of increased rainfall at c. 3990 BC, a decrease in the elm population occurred between c. 3970 and 3820 BC. This coincided with a period of warming and drying climatic conditions and an initial increase in anthropogenic activities. A second episode of high precipitation between c. 3830-3800 BC was followed by a steep increase in human impact on the landscape, which became most pronounced between c. 3740 and 3630 BC. At this time, the lake level of Templevanny Lough was at its lowest during the Neolithic. The onset of wetter and cooler conditions after c. 3670 BC, representing the transition from the Early to the Middle Neolithic, coincided with a period of woodland recovery. The Middle Neolithic was characterised by pronounced climatic oscillations including periods of substantial rainfall between c. 3600 and 3500 BC and between c. 3500 and 3460 BC. A nearly century-long climatic amelioration between c. 3460-3370 BC facilitated a revival of human activity on a small scale around the lake. Abandonment of the area and full woodland recovery occurred after a period of particularly wet and cool conditions ranging from c. 3360-3290 BC. The pollen and geochemistry data suggest that the Late Neolithic was marked by a period of ameliorated conditions between c. 3110-3050 BC that was followed by two episodes of high rainfall at c. 3060-3030 BC and c. 2940-2900 BC. The timing of the climatic shifts inferred from the Templevanny Lough record is in agreement with those of moisture/precipitation and temperature reconstructions from northern and western Europe and the Alps, suggesting that the studied period was characterised by a high-frequency climate variability. The results of the present study imply that human development during the Irish Neolithic was influenced by climatic variations. These climatic shifts correspond to variations in solar activity, suggesting a solar forcing on climate.

Claim of solar influence is on thin ice: are 11-year cycle solar minima associated with severe winters in Europe?

van Oldenborgh et al. 2013   Environmental Research Letters 8, 024014
A recent paper in Geophysical Research Letters, 'Solar influence on winter severity in central Europe', by Sirocko et al (2012 Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L16704) claims that 'weak solar activity is empirically related to extremely cold winter conditions in Europe' based on analyses of documentary evidence of freezing of the River Rhine in Germany and of the Reanalysis of the Twentieth Century (20C). However, our attempt to reproduce these findings failed. The documentary data appear to be selected subjectively and agree neither with instrumental observations nor with two other reconstructions based on documentary data. None of these datasets show significant connection between solar activity and winter severity in Europe beyond a common trend. The analysis of Sirocko et al of the 20C circulation and temperature is inconsistent with their time series analysis. A physically-motivated consistent methodology again fails to support the reported conclusions. We conclude that multiple lines of evidence contradict the findings of Sirocko et al.

The importance of time-varying forcing for QBO modulation of the atmospheric 11-year solar cycle signal

Matthes et al. 2013   Journal Of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
We present results from three multi-decadal sensitivity experiments with time-varying solar cycle and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) forcings using NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM3.1). The model experiments are unique compared to earlier studies as they use time-varying forcings either for the solar cycle only and the QBO, both individually and combined. The results show that the annual mean solar response in the tropical upper stratosphere is independent of the presence of the QBO. The response in the middle to lower stratosphere differs depending on the presence of the QBO and the solar cycle but is statistically indistinguishable in the three experiments. The seasonal evolution of the solar and the combined solar-QBO signals reveals a reasonable agreement with observations only for the experiment in which both the solar cycle and the QBO forcing are present, suggesting that both forcings are important to generate the observed response. More stratospheric warmings occur during solar maximum and QBO west conditions. This appears to be the result of a QBO modulation of the background zonalmean wind climatology, which modifies the solar signal. Depending on the background wind the small initial early winter solar signal in the subtropical upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere is enhanced during QBO east and diminished during QBO west conditions. This consequently influences the transfer of the solar-QBO signal during winter and results in the observed differences during late winter.

Could a future "Grand Solar Minimum" like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?

Meehl et al. 2013   Geophysical Research Letters
A future Maunder Minimum type grand solar minimum, with total solar irradiance reduced by 0.25% over a 50 year period from 2020 to 2070, is imposed in a future climate change scenario experiment (RCP4.5) using, for the first time, a global coupled climate model that includes ozone chemistry and resolved stratospheric dynamics (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). This model has been shown to simulate two amplifying mechanisms that produce regional signals of decadal climate variability comparable to observations, and thus is considered a credible tool to simulate the Sun's effects on Earth's climate. After the initial decrease of solar radiation in 2020, globally averaged surface air temperature cools relative to the reference simulation by up to several tenths of a degree Centigrade. By the end of the grand solar minimum in 2070, the warming nearly catches up to the reference simulation. Thus, a future grand solar minimum could slow down but not stop global warming.

Solar influenced late Holocene temperature changes on the northern Tibetan Plateau

YuXin et al. 2013   Chinese Science Bulletin 58, 1053-1059
Considerable efforts have been made to extend temperature records beyond the instrumental period through proxy reconstructions, in order to further understand the mechanisms of past climate variability. Yet, the global coverage of existing temperature records is still limited, especially for some key regions like the Tibetan Plateau and for earlier times including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). Here we present decadally-resolved, alkenone-based, temperature records from two lakes on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Characterized by marked temperature variability, our records provide evidence that temperatures during the MWP were slightly higher than the modern period in this region. Further, our temperature reconstructions, within age uncertainty, can be well correlated with solar irradiance changes, suggesting a possible link between solar forcing and natural climate variability, at least on the northern Tibetan Plateau.

The AD775 cosmic event revisited: the Sun is to blame

Usoskin et al. 2013   Astronomy & Astrophysics 552, L3
Aims. Miyake et al. (2012, Nature, 486, 240, henceforth M12) recently reported, based on 14C data, an extreme cosmic event in about AD775. Using a simple model, M12 claimed that the event was too strong to be caused by a solar flare within the standard theory. This implied a new paradigm of either an impossibly strong solar flare or a very strong cosmic ray event of unknown origin that occurred around AD775. However, as we show, the strength of the event was significantly overestimated by M12. Several subsequent works have attempted to find a possible exotic source for such an event, including a giant cometary impact upon the Sun or a gamma-ray burst, but they are all based on incorrect estimates by M12. We revisit this event with analysis of new datasets and consistent theoretical modelling. Methods. We verified the experimental result for the AD775 cosmic ray event using independent datasets including 10Be series and newly measured 14C annual data. We surveyed available historical chronicles for astronomical observations for the period around the AD770s to identify potential sightings of aurorae borealis and supernovae. We interpreted the 14C measurements using an appropriate carbon cycle model. Results. We show that: (1) The reality of the AD775 event is confirmed by new measurements of 14C in German oak; (2) by using an inappropriate carbon cycle model, M12 strongly overestimated the event''s strength; (3) the revised magnitude of the event (the global 14C production Q = (1.1 - 1.5) x 108 atoms/cm2) is consistent with different independent datasets (14C, 10Be, 36Cl) and can be associated with a strong, but not inexplicably strong, solar energetic particle event (or a sequence of events), and provides the first definite evidence for an event of this magnitude (the fluence >30 MeV was about 4.5 x 1010 cm-2) in multiple datasets; (4) this interpretation is in agreement with increased auroral activity identified in historical chronicles. Conclusions. The results point to the likely solar origin of the event, which is now identified as the greatest solar event on a multi-millennial time scale, placing a strong observational constraint on the theory of explosive energy releases on the Sun and cool stars.

Terrestrial effects of possible astrophysical sources of an AD 774-775 increase in 14C production

Thomas et al. 2013   Geophysical Research Letters
We examine possible sources of a substantial increase in tree ring 14C measurements for the years AD 774-775. Contrary to claims regarding a coronal mass ejection (CME), the required CME energy is not several orders of magnitude greater than known solar events. We consider solar proton events (SPEs) with three different fluences and two different spectra. The data may be explained by an event with fluence about one order of magnitude beyond the October 1989 SPE. Two hard spectrum cases considered here result in moderate ozone depletion, so no mass extinction is implied, though we do predict increases in erythema and damage to plants from enhanced solar UV. We are able to rule out an event with a very soft spectrum that causes severe ozone depletion and subsequent biological impacts. Nitrate enhancements are consistent with their apparent absence in ice core data. The modern technological implications of such an event may be extreme, and considering recent confirmation of superflares on solar-type stars, this issue merits attention.

Modeled rapid adjustments in diurnal temperature range response to CO2 and solar forcings

Jackson and Foster 2013   Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
We used the National Center for Atmospheric Research single column climate model to determine if rapid adjustments to surface heat fluxes contribute to a change in skin surface or surface air diurnal temperature range (DTR) under 2 × CO2 and -2% solar forcings. An ensemble of model runs was employed with locations selected to represent a range of different climatic conditions and with forcing implemented hourly throughout the diurnal cycle. The change in skin surface DTR and surface energy fluxes during the 3 days after forcing were used to quantify the rapid adjustment response and temperature related feedback. Averaged over all locations, skin surface DTR reduced by 0.01C after CO2 forcing and included a rapid adjustment to skin surface DTR of -0.12C. Skin surface DTR reduced by 0.17C after solar forcing and included a rapid adjustment of -0.01C. The rapid adjustments in skin surface DTR were associated with rapid adjustments in surface sensible and latent heat fluxes necessary to balance the energy budget immediately after forcing. We find that the sensitivity of skin surface DTR to mean temperature related feedback is the same for CO2 and solar forcings when skin surface DTR rapid adjustments are allowed for. Rapid adjustments played a key role in the geographic variation of the skin surface DTR response to forcing. Our results suggest that diurnal variations in trends of downwelling longwave radiation and rapid reductions in DTR associated with CO2 forcing potentially contributed to the observed global trend in surface air DTR.

On the origin of multidecadal to centennial Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 yr

Kobashi et al. 2013   Climate of the Past 9, 583-596
The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies due to its association with sea level rise. However, the causes of multidecadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland temperatures are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine these, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA[G-NH]) over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardized northern hemispheric (NH) temperature from the standardized Greenland temperature. This decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH); polar amplification; and regional variability (GTA[G-NH]). The central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3-4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA[G-NH] explains 31-35 % of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multidecadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. We found that the GTA[G-NH] has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO). Climate modeling and proxy temperature records indicate that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

Solar influence on climate variability and human development during the Neolithic: evidence from a high-resolution multi-proxy record from Templevanny Lough, County Sligo, Ireland

Stolze et al. 2013   Quaternary Science Reviews 67, 138-159
The relationship between climatic variations, vegetation dynamics and early human activity between c. 4150-2860 BC was reconstructed from a high-resolution pollen and geochemical record obtained from a small lake located in County Sligo, Ireland. The proxy record suggests the existence of a woodland with a largely closed canopy at the start of the fourth millennium BC. Only minor human disturbance is recorded. Following an episode of increased rainfall at c. 3990 BC, a decrease in the elm population occurred between c. 3970 and 3820 BC. This coincided with a period of warming and drying climatic conditions and an initial increase in anthropogenic activities. A second episode of high precipitation between c. 3830-3800 BC was followed by a steep increase in human impact on the landscape, which became most pronounced between c. 3740 and 3630 BC. At this time, the lake level of Templevanny Lough was at its lowest during the Neolithic. The onset of wetter and cooler conditions after c. 3670 BC, representing the transition from the Early to the Middle Neolithic, coincided with a period of woodland recovery. The Middle Neolithic was characterised by pronounced climatic oscillations including periods of substantial rainfall between c. 3600 and 3500 BC and between c. 3500 and 3460 BC. A nearly century-long climatic amelioration between c. 3460-3370 BC facilitated a revival of human activity on a small scale around the lake. Abandonment of the area and full woodland recovery occurred after a period of particularly wet and cool conditions ranging from c. 3360-3290 BC. The pollen and geochemistry data suggest that the Late Neolithic was marked by a period of ameliorated conditions between c. 3110-3050 BC that was followed by two episodes of high rainfall at c. 3060-3030 BC and c. 2940-2900 BC. The timing of the climatic shifts inferred from the Templevanny Lough record is in agreement with those of moisture/precipitation and temperature reconstructions from northern and western Europe and the Alps, suggesting that the studied period was characterised by a high-frequency climate variability. The results of the present study imply that human development during the Irish Neolithic was influenced by climatic variations. These climatic shifts correspond to variations in solar activity, suggesting a solar forcing on climate.

Geomagnetic field variations in Western Europe from 1500BC to 200 AD. Part II: new intensity secular variation curve

Hervé et al. in press   Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
In order to extend the secular variation curve (SVC) of archaeointensity in Western Europe to the first millennium BC, we studied 24 kilns and hearths in place, 2 displaced hearths and 6 sets of pottery sherds from French archaeological sites. Archaeological artefacts, radiocarbon and dendrochronology dated the acquisition of the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) carried by the studied objects. Rock magnetism experiments suggest that the main carrier of the magnetization is a Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Archaeointensity was determined by the Thellier-Thellier classical protocol with pTRM-checks. A strict criteria set was applied to select only the most reliable results with linear NRM-TRM diagrams (55% of total specimens). This study demonstrates that pottery sherds with two TRMs give reliable archaeointensities in the low-temperature interval, if the NRM-TRM diagram is adequately adjusted. Eighteen new mean archaeointensities (14 corrected from the anisotropy of TRM and 16 from cooling rate) were computed. The comparison with previously published Western Europe paleointensities show a strong dispersion between data primarily due to their variable quality. Western Europe data were weighted following the archaeointensity protocol, the number of specimens per site and the type of studied materials, in order to better highlight the secular variation of archaeointensity during the first millennium BC. The SVC, built with sliding windows of 160 years shifted every 50 years, presents (at Paris) a maximum of 90uT around 800BC and a minimum of 60uT around 250BC. These archaeointensity maximum and minimum correspond to cusps of the geomagnetic field direction in Western Europe. This new curve is consistent with Mesopotamian and Eastern Europe data. The archaeointensity secular variation in Western Europe predicted by global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, ARCH3k.1 and ARCH3k_cst.1 is smoother than our SVC. We used our directional dataset (Hervé et al., 2012a) to build a new Western Europe VGPs and VDMs mean curves. Comparison with the predictions given by the global models points out a possible persistent non-dipole fields effect over Europe between 1000BC and 600-500BC. Finally, we note that the strong variations of intensity of the geomagnetic field (with a mean decrease rate per century close to 6uT) will be useful for archaeomagnetic dating purposes.

A synthesis of the Antarctic surface mass balance during the last 800 yr

Frezotti et al. 2013   The Cryosphere 7, 303-319
Global climate models suggest that Antarctic snowfall should increase in a warming climate and mitigate rises in the sea level. Several processes affect surface mass balance (SMB), introducing large uncertainties in past, present and future ice sheet mass balance. To provide an extended perspective on the past SMB of Antarctica, we used 67 firn/ice core records to reconstruct the temporal variability in the SMB over the past 800 yr and, in greater detail, over the last 200 yr. Our SMB reconstructions indicate that the SMB changes over most of Antarctica are statistically negligible and that the current SMB is not exceptionally high compared to the last 800 yr. High-accumulation periods have occurred in the past, specifically during the 1370s and 1610s. However, a clear increase in accumulation of more than 10 % has occurred in high SMB coastal regions and over the highest part of the East Antarctic ice divide since the 1960s. To explain the differences in behaviour between the coastal/ice divide sites and the rest of Antarctica, we suggest that a higher frequency of blocking anticyclones increases the precipitation at coastal sites, leading to the advection of moist air in the highest areas, whereas blowing snow and/or erosion have significant negative impacts on the SMB at windy sites. Eight hundred years of stacked records of the SMB mimic the total solar irradiance during the 13th and 18th centuries. The link between those two variables is probably indirect and linked to a teleconnection in atmospheric circulation that forces complex feedback between the tropical Pacific and Antarctica via the generation and propagation of a large-scale atmospheric wave train.

Variation of the Schwabe Cycle length during the Grand Solar Minimum in the 4th Century BC deduced from radiocarbon content in tree rings

Nagaya et al. 2012   Solar Physics 280, 223-236
Solar activity alternates between active and quiet phases with an average period of 11 years, and this is known as the Schwabe cycle. Additionally, solar activity occasionally falls into a prolonged quiet phase (grand solar minimum), as represented by the Maunder Minimum in the 17th century, when sunspots were almost absent for 70 years and the length of the Schwabe cycle increased to 14 years. To examine the consistency of the cycle length characteristics during the grand solar minima, the carbon-14 contents in single-year tree rings were measured using an accelerator mass spectrometer as an index of the solar variability during the grand solar minimum of the 4th century BC. The signal of the Schwabe cycle was detected with a statistical confidence level of higher than 95% by wavelet analysis. This is the oldest evidence for the Schwabe cycle at the present time, and the cycle length is considered to have increased to approximately 16 years during the grand solar minimum of the 4th century BC. This result confirms the association between the increase of the Schwabe cycle length and the weakening of solar activity, and indicates the possible prolonged absence of sunspots in the 4th century BC as during the Maunder Minimum. Theoretical implications from solar dynamo theory are discussed in order to identify the trigger of prolonged sunspot absence. A possible association between the long-term solar variation around the 4th century BC and terrestrial cooling in this period is also discussed.

Phytolith records of the climate change since the past 15000 years in the middle reach of the Yangtze River in China

Gu et al. 2012   Frontiers of Earth Science 6, 10-17
Based on 14C dating and core sediments survey, phytolith records are employed to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the Jianghan Plain in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. Phytoliths identified are assigned into 21 well-described morphotypes and divided into four groups (Poaceae, fern, coniferous and broad-leaved). The phytolith assemblages together with warmth index (Iw) are divided into 18 ecological zones, which reflect a complete vegetation history related to climate change in the middle reach of the Yangtze River during the past 15000 years. On the basis of the correlation of phytolith records with the paleoclimatic indicators from stalagmite, peatland, North Atlantic deep-sea sediments, Loess Plateau of Central China, and Arabic Sea sediments, eight climatic phases are identified included Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (20 - 14.8 cal kaBP), Last Deglaciation (LDG) (14.8 - 11.9 cal kaBP), low-temperature phase in the Early Holocene (11.9 - 8 cal kaBP), Holocene Optimum (8 - 4.9 cal kaBP), Holocene Katathermal (4.9 - 1.1 cal kaBP), Medieval Warmth Period (MWP) (1.1 - 0.7 cal kaBP), Little Ice Age (LIA) (0.7 - 0.15 cal kaBP), and Modern Warming (0.15 cal kaBP - present). Climatic events such as Bolling-Allerod warm intervals, Older Dryas, Inter-Allerod Cold Period, and Younger Dryas, and eight Holocene Bond events (B1-8) have been identified since the LDG. Our results demonstrate that the evolution of the climate in the research area has a strong link with the Indian Summer Monsoon (SW Monsoon), Asian Summer Monsoon (SE Monsoon), and Holocene events in North Atlantic simultaneously, which might indicate that solar variability affects the Earth surface climate system at the centennial and millennial scales.

A possible solar pacemaker for Holocene fluctuations of a salt-marsh in southern Italy

Di Rita 2013   Quaternary International 288, 239-248
This study is aimed at verifying the possible influence of solar activity on the coastal vegetation development in the Tavoliere Plain (south Adriatic region, Italy) between 6350 and 4000 cal BP, when regular fluctuations of halophilic vegetation are recorded by pollen. A wavelet analysis, applied to the percentage values of glasswort vegetation is consistent with periodicities of solar activity and other palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimate proxies in the literature. A comparison of salt-marsh pollen indicators (Salicornia type and Ruppia maritima) with the 10Be dataset from the Greenland ice core GISP2, on the basis of their independent chronologies, reveals a strong visual correlation, indicating that the minima of salt-marsh percentages match minima in the 10Be curve, corresponding to solar activity maxima, associated with warm and arid phases at the middle latitudes. The Tavoliere salt-marsh appears to have contracted during the arid/warm phases associated to maxima of solar activity and to have expanded during the wet/cold phases of solar minima. This coastal area, characterized by a very flat topography and arid climate, appears to have been very sensitive to even minor hydrological and climate changes. Changes of solar activity, determining extensive environmental transformations, were also possibly responsible for the abandonment of the human coastal settlements of one of the most important Neolithic archaeological districts of Italy.

Influence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation and solar forcing on climate and primary productivity changes in the northeast Pacific

Patterson et al. in press   Quaternary International
Evidence of 11-year Schwabe solar sunspot cycles, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) were detected in an annual record of diatomaceous laminated sediments from anoxic Effingham Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Radiometric dating and counting of annual varves dates the sediments from AD 1947-1993. Intact sediment slabs were X-rayed for sediment structure (lamina thickness and composition based on gray scale), and subsamples were examined for diatom abundances and for grain size. Wavelet analysis reveals the presence of c. 2-3, c. 4.5, c. 7 and c. 9-12-year cycles in the diatom record and an c. 11-13 year record in the sedimentary varve thickness record. These cycle lengths suggest that both ENSO and the sunspot cycle had an influence on primary productivity and sedimentation patterns. Sediment grain size could not be correlated to the sunspot cycle although a peak in the grain size data centered around the mid-1970s may be related to the 1976-1977 Pacific climate shift, which occurred when the PDO index shifted from negative (cool conditions) to positive (warm conditions). Additional evidence of the PDO regime shift is found in wavelet and cross wavelet results for Skeletonema costatum, a weakly silicified variant of S. costatum, annual precipitation and April to June precipitation. Higher spring (April/May) values of the North Pacific High pressure index during sunspot minima suggest that during this time, increased cloud cover and concomitant suppression of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure system led to strengthened coastal upwelling and enhanced diatom production earlier in the year. These results suggest that the 11-year solar cycle, amplified by cloud cover and upwelling changes, as well as ENSO, exert significant influence on marine primary productivity in the northeast Pacific. The expression of these cyclic phenomena in the sedimentary record were in turn modulated by the phase of PDO, as indicated by the change in period of ENSO and suppression of the solar signal in the record after the 1976-1977 regime shift.

A study on possible solar and geomagnetic effects on the precipitation over Northwestern Argentina

Heredia and Elias 2013   Advances in Space Research
The precipitation over Tucuman (26.8 S; 65.2 W), which is representative of the Northwestern region of Argentina, is analyzed in search of an association with solar and geomagnetic activity, with the purpose of contributing to the controversial issue on the connection between climate variation and anthropogenic vs. natural forcing. Monthly time series of precipitation, sunspot number (Rz), and aa index were used for the period 1884-2010. A wavelet analysis was performed first which, due to the time series length, shows significant results only for periodicities lower than 32 years. Due to the transient character and non-constant phase of the results, any sustained wavelet coherence between precipitation and either sunspots or aa could be noticed. Moving averages and correlations were also assessed. The 11 and 22-year running mean of precipitation is positively correlated to Rz and aa when the whole period of analysis is considered. However, a shift in the long-term behavior of precipitation is noticed around 1940, which implies different correlation values with Rz and aa when the period before or after this year are considered. The solar cycle length is also considered for this statistical study and partly confirms the results obtained with Rz and aa. We propose plausible physical explanations based on geomagnetic activity and total solar irradiance effects over atmospheric circulation that could support the statistical result. A deeper analysis and broader geographical coverage is needed in order to detect a connection between precipitation and solar variability discernible from greenhouse gases effects. We emphasize the idea of the importance of recognizing and quantifying the different forcing acting on precipitation (or any other climate parameter), which sometimes can be barely evident from a solely statistical analysis.

The planetary hypothesis revived

Charbonneau 2013   Nature 493, 613-614
The Sun's magnetic activity varies cyclically over a period of about 11 years. An analysis of a new, temporally extended proxy record of this activity hints at a possible planetary influence on the amplitude of the cycle.

Using data to attribute episodes of warming and cooling in instrumental records

Tung and Zhou 2013   PNAS
The observed global-warming rate has been nonuniform, and the cause of each episode of slowing in the expected warming rate is the subject of intense debate. To explain this, nonrecurrent events have commonly been invoked for each episode separately. After reviewing evidence in both the latest global data (HadCRUT4) and the longest instrumental record, Central England Temperature, a revised picture is emerging that gives a consistent attribution for each multidecadal episode of warming and cooling in recent history, and suggests that the anthropogenic global warming trends might have been overestimated by a factor of two in the second half of the 20th century. A recurrent multidecadal oscillation is found to extend to the preindustrial era in the 353-y Central England Temperature and is likely an internal variability related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), possibly caused by the thermohaline circulation variability. The perspective of a long record helps in quantifying the contribution from internal variability, especially one with a period so long that it is often confused with secular trends in shorter records. Solar contribution is found to be minimal for the second half of the 20th century and less than 10% for the first half. The underlying net anthropogenic warming rate in the industrial era is found to have been steady since 1910 at 0.07-0.08 C/decade, with superimposed AMO-related ups and downs that included the early 20th century warming, the cooling of the 1960s and 1970s, the accelerated warming of the 1980s and 1990s, and the recent slowing of the warming rates. Quantitatively, the recurrent multidecadal internal variability, often underestimated in attribution studies, accounts for 40% of the observed recent 50-y warming trend.

High-resolution analysis of upper Miocene lake deposits: Evidence for the influence of Gleissberg-band solar forcing

Kern et al. 2013   Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 370, 167-183
A high-resolution multi-proxy analysis was conducted on a 1.5-m-long core of Tortonian age (~ 10.5 Ma; Late Miocene) from Austria (Europe). The lake sediments were studied with a 1-cm resolution to detect all small-scale variations based on palynomorphs (pollen and dinoflagellate cysts), ostracod abundance, geochemistry (carbon and sulfur) and geophysics (magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma radiation). Based on an already established age model for a longer interval of the same core, this sequence can be limited to approx. two millennia of Late Miocene time with a resolution of ~ 13.7 years per sample. The previous study documented the presence of solar forcing, which was verified within various proxies on this 1.5-m core by a combination of REDFIT spectra and Gaussian filters. Significant repetitive signals ranged in two discrete intervals corresponding roughly to 55-82 and 110-123 years, fitting well within the lower and upper Gleissberg cycle ranges. Based on these results, the environmental changes along the 2000-year Late Miocene sequence are discussed. No major ecological turnovers are expected in this very short interval. Nonetheless, even within this brief time span, dinoflagellates document rapid changes between oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions, which are frequently coupled with lake stratification and dysoxic bottom waters. These phases prevented ostracods and molluscs from settling and promoted the activity of sulfur bacteria. The pollen record indicates rather stable wetland vegetation with a forested hinterland. Shifts in the pollen spectra can be mainly attributed to variations in transport mechanisms. These are represented by a few phases of fluvial input but mainly by changes in wind intensity and probably also wind direction. Such influence is most likely caused by solar cycles, leading to a change in source area for the input into the lake. Furthermore, these solar-induced variations seem to be modulated by longer solar cycles. The filtered data display comparable patterns and modulations, which seem to be forced by the 1000-year and 1500-year cycles. The 1000-year cycle modulated especially the lake surface proxies, whereas the 1500-year cycle is mainly reflected in hinterland proxies, indicating strong influence on transport mechanisms.

Paleoclimate of the Southern Adriatic Sea region during the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' reflected by organic walled dinoflagellate cysts

Chen et al. 2013   The Holocene
To obtain insight into the character and forcing of southern Italian climate change during the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' (c. AD 900-1200), marine sediments deposited between AD 990 and 1200 from the Gulf of Taranto have been analyzed for their dinoflagellate cyst content with a 3.5 yr resolution. The reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) appears to be lower than today. We observe a clear 11.4 yr cyclicity in the reconstructed SST series. Furthermore, there is a good matching between SST and global 14C anomalies. This suggests that solar activity might have had an important influence on the local climate during Medieval time. Short-term fluctuations in accumulation rates of aerobic degradation resistant species that react sensitively on the trophic state of the upper waters and/or are characteristic for river plume waters indicate that the trophic state of the upper waters is closely linked to river discharge, which in turn is strongly related to precipitation in Italy. We reconstruct low river discharge/precipitations in the Adriatic area synchronous to widespread drought events in other nearby subtropical regions. We attribute this to NAO and ENSO related large-scale ocean-atmosphere circulation shifts during the Medieval period. Furthermore, we suggest that eruptions of southern Italian volcanoes might have influenced the local upper water nutrient conditions as well.

Influence of solar activity on breaching, overflowing and course-shifting events of the Lower Yellow River in the late Holocene

Wang & Su 2013   The Holocene
The Lower Yellow River (LYR) has been characterized as a frequently breaching, overflowing and shifting river in historical periods. Understanding the factors that influence the LYR variations is critical for river management and disaster prevention. This study constructed a spatio-temporal data base of the LYR's breaching and overflowing events (BOEs) and course-shifting events (CSEs) occurring in the late Holocene. The data base and corresponding solar activity data were analyzed to determine the overall influence, temporal influence and spatial influence of solar activity on the LYR. Results showed that 75.5% of the LYR CSEs and 61.7% of the LYR BOEs occurred in sunspot number decline phases of 11 yr solar cycles, suggesting that the LYR changed more frequently during the sunspot number decline phases. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon was further interpreted as the high correlation between sunspot decline phases and heavy rainfall in the middle reaches of Yellow River (MYR). Five of the six heavy rainfall years over the last 60 years and 14 of the 16 well-known heavy rainfall records from 132 BC to AD 1933 in the MYR occurred in sunspot decline phases. Heavy rainfall in the MYR promoted the increase of the LYR runoff and the sediment rate and then raised the possibility of the occurrence of BOEs and CSEs. The study also found that the frequency of BOEs was positively related to the fluctuation amplitude of the sunspot maximum intensity in long time series. The flow directions of the LYR courses were found to affect the influence of solar activity on BOEs. The highest correlation between sunspot decline phases and BOEs was presented during the lifetime of eastward flows while the lowest during the lifetime of northward flows. In addition, human activities may undermine the impact of solar activities on the LYR changes.

Are the sunspots really vanishing? Anomalies in solar cycle 23 and implications for long-term models and proxies

Clete and Lefevre 2012   J. Space Weather Space Clim. 2 A06
Context: The elapsed solar cycle (23) ended with an exceptionally long period of low activity and with unprecedented low levels for various series of solar irradiance and particle flux measurements. This unpredicted evolution of solar activity raised multiple questions about a future decline of the solar cycles and launched a quest for precursor signs of this possible deep solar transition over the last decade. Aim: We present here a review and overall interpretation of most current diagnostics of solar cycle 23, including the recent disagreements that appeared among solar reference indices and standard solar-based geo-indices, the indication of a changed pattern of internal torsional waves (helioseismology) or the announced fading and magnetic weakening of sunspots. Methods: Based on a statistical analysis of detailed sunspot properties over the last 24 years, we complete the picture with new evidence of a strong global deficit of the smallest sunspots starting around 2000, in order to answer the question: are all sunspots about to disappear? Results: This global scale-dependent change in sunspot properties is confirmed to be real and not due to uncontrolled biases in some of the indices. It can also explain the recent discrepancies between solar indices by their different sensitivities to small and weak magnetic elements (small spots). The International Sunspot Index Ri, based on unweighted sunspot counts, proved to be particularly sensitive to this particular small-scale solar evolution. Conclusions: Our results and interpretation show the necessity to look backwards in time, more than 80 years ago. Indeed, the Sun seems to be actually returning to a past and hardly explored activity regime ending before the 1955-1995 Grand Maximum, which probably biased our current space-age view of solar activity.

Influence of orbital forcing and solar activity on water isotopes in precipitation during the mid- and late Holocene

Dietrich et al. 2013   Climate of the Past 9, 13-26
In this study we investigate the impact of mid- and late Holocene orbital forcing and solar activity on variations of the oxygen isotopic composition in precipitation. The investigation is motivated by a recently published speleothem d18O record from the well-monitored Bunker Cave in Germany. The record reveals some high variability on multi-centennial to millennial scales that does not linearly correspond to orbital forcing. Our model study is based on a set of novel climate simulations performed with the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso enhanced by explicit water isotope diagnostics. From the performed model experiments, we derive the following major results: (1) the response of both orbital and solar forcing lead to changes in surface temperatures and d18O in precipitation with similar magnitudes during the mid- and late Holocene. (2) Past d18O anomalies correspond to changing temperatures in the orbital driven simulations. This does not hold true if an additional solar forcing is added. (3) Two orbital driven mid-Holocene experiments, simulating the mean climate state approximately 5000 and 6000 yr ago, yield very similar results. However, if an identical additional solar activity-induced forcing is added, the simulated changes of surface temperatures as well as d18O between both periods differ. We conclude from our simulation results that non-linear effects and feedbacks of the orbital and solar activity forcing substantially alter the d18O in precipitation pattern and its relation to temperature change.

Summed radiocarbon probability density functions cannot prove solar forcing of Central European lake-level changes

Bleicher, 2013   The Holocene
It has been argued that Central European lake levels were driven by solar activity. This interpretation rests on the comparison of a score record of radiocarbon dates with the 14C residual curve. This score record is a variant of a cumulative probability density function (CPF). In this paper it is argued that this method is not valid because the shape of the CPF is determined by the calibration curve. This hypothesis is tested by a set of null models. An alternative interpretation is given according to which only few episodes of Holocene lake-level changes were climatically driven, while most of the time non-climatic factors were dominating. On a more general level some methodological issues of CPFs are discussed and exemplified by the comparison of dendrochronological results from archaeological settlements and a CPF created using radiocarbon dates from the same settlements.

A Mechanism for Lagged North Atlantic Climate Response to Solar Variability

Scaife et al. 2013   Geophysical Research Letters, in press
Variability in solar irradiance has been connected to changes in surface climate in the North Atlantic through both observational and climate modelling studies which suggest a response in the atmospheric circulation that resembles the North Atlantic Oscillation or its hemispheric equivalent the Arctic Oscillation. It has also been noted that this response appears to follow the changes in solar irradiance by a few years, depending on the exact indicator of solar variability. Here we propose and test a mechanism for this lag based on the known impact of atmospheric circulation on the Atlantic Ocean, the extended memory of ocean heat content anomalies and their subsequent feedback onto the atmosphere. We use results from climate model experiments to develop a simple model for the relationship between solar variability and North Atlantic climate.

Circulation changes in the winter lower atmosphere and long-lasting solar/geomagnetic activity

Bochnicek et al. 2012   Ann. Geophys. 30, 1719-1726
The paper describes the association between high long-lasting solar/geomagnetic activity and geopotential height (GPH) changes in the winter lower atmosphere, based on their development in the Northern Hemisphere in the winter periods (December-March) of 1950-1969 and 1970-2002. Solar/geomagnetic activity is characterised by the 60-day mean of the sunspot number R/by the 60-day mean of the daily sum of the Kp index. The GPH distributions in the lower atmosphere are described by 60-day anomalies from their long-term daily average at 20 hPa/850 hPa. The data have been adopted from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The 60-day mean values of solar/geomagnetic activity and GPH anomalies were calculated in five-day steps over the whole winter period. The analysis was carried out using composite maps which represent their distribution of the GPH anomalies during high solar activity (R > 100) and high geomagnetic activity ( Kp > 20). Analysis has shown that the dis- tribution of GPH anomalies depends on solar activity, geo-magnetic activity and the phase of winter period (early or late winter). The nature of this relationship then depends on the time interval involved, i.e. 1950-1969 or 1970-2002. Positive anomalies in the polar stratosphere (20 hPa) were detected during the whole winter periods of the years 1950-1969. Significant anomalies were detected in the lower tropo- sphere (850 hPa) during the second half of the winter period. The distribution of GPH anomalies on the maps compiled with regard to solar activity was similar to the distribution on maps compiled with regard to geomagnetic activity. In the interval 1970-2002, significant negative GPH anomalies were detected in the stratosphere at high latitudes, and positive anomalies were detected in the region of low latitudes. The distribution of GPH anomalies in the lower troposphere was substantially affected by situations in which, together with high solar activity, also high geomagnetic activity occurred.

Orbital and solar forcing of shifts in Mid- to Late Holocene flood intensity from varved sediments of pre-alpine Lake Ammersee (southern Germany)

Czymzik et al. 2013   Quaternary Science Reviews 61, 96-110
Microfacies analyses and X-ray fluorescence scanning (u-XRF) at sub-mm resolution were conducted on the varved Mid- to Late Holocene interval of two sediment profiles from pre-alpine Lake Ammersee (southern Germany). The coring sites are located in a proximal (AS10prox) and distal (AS10dist) position towards the main tributary River Ammer, in 1.8 km distance from each other. To shed light on sediment distribution within the lake, particular emphasis was (1) the detection of intercalated detrital layers and their micro-sedimentological features, and (2) intra-basin correlation of these event deposits. Detrital layers were dated by microscopic varve counting, verified by accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils. Since c. 5500 varve years (vyr) BP, in total 1573 detrital layers were detected in either one or both of the investigated sediment profiles. Based on their microfacies, geochemistry, and proximal-distal deposition pattern, detrital layers were interpreted as River Ammer flood deposits. Earlier studies on flood layer seasonality have proven that flood layer deposition occurs predominantly during spring and summer, the flood season at Lake Ammersee. Most prominent features of the record are the onset of regular flood layer deposition at c. 5500 vyr BP in AS10prox and c. 2800 vyr BP in AS10dist as well as three major increases in mean flood layer thickness at c. 5500, 2800, and 400 vyr BP. Integrating information from both sediment profiles allowed to interpret these changes in terms of shifts towards higher mean flood intensity. Proposed triggering mechanisms are gradual reduction in Northern Hemisphere orbital summer forcing and superimposed centennial-scale solar activity minima. Likely responses to this forcing are enhanced equator-to-pole temperature gradients and changes in synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation. The consequences for the Ammersee region are more intense cyclones leading to extremer rainfall and flood events in spring and summer.

See remainder and earlier years at Club du Soleil



  2. Awesome list ! Thanks for compiling :o)

  3. Many papers shown here report a strong human related climate forcing signal. The majority of them discuss solar related forcing but very few of them conclude it is stronger (over the long term) than human activities (e.g. C02). Some of them conclude that there is no longer term solar signal. The one paper I noticed that came out strongly against a human signal was opinion.

    Personally, as a scientist, climate change makes a lot of sense to me (I have worked in planetary science, computer modeling, meteorology and astrophysics but not climate per se so I have no vested interest in one theory over another). There are good physical models to support the theory that recent warming is driven by increased atmospheric C02. There may be other signals and the exact strength of the forcing is hard to predict but the basic science is unassailable. If the rate of change is slower than predicted then great, we have more time to adapt. It may be shocking to think that humanity is changing the climate but when you think about the fact that we have reversed millions of years worth of carbon sequestration (fossil fuel deposition) in mere decades it makes a lot of sense. My biggest concern is that this change is very sudden compared to other climate effects -- it will take a while to see the full impact. From a risk management perspective the concern should be not be what if the effect is weaker than some are predicting. My concern is what if it is stronger due to positive feedbacks and missing elements in the models. Humanity is unlikely to do anything about atmospheric C02 for purely economic reasons. However, I feel we have a collective moral obligation to help victims of flooding and drought associated with climate change.



    1. There are over 2000 peer-reviewed papers on this blog analyzed & discussed in detail as to why they either help to refute the claims of the IPCC or show CO2 is in fact a minor player.

      The IPCC claims the Sun cannot account for any significant climate change, but these papers and many others refute that notion. The Sun accounts for 95% of climate change over the past 400 years.

  4. Did you mean to include this one?

  5. You do realize that nearly all of these papers operated from the point of view that anthropomorphic climate change IS happening? This is an impressive list, but no one has ever doubted that solar forcing variation, cosmic rays, ocean heat/CO2 sinks, and solar activity can drive atmospheric processes that affect climate. I nearly every case, these papers merely discuss new results and either suggest how to incorporate them into current models or suggest that new models need to be developed to account for them. In a few cases, they refute previous claims of the impact of solar forcing.

    Seems like much ado about nothing if your goal is to convince people that scientists are abandoning CO2 in favor of the Sun as the source of recent variation.

    1. There are over 2000 peer-reviewed papers on this blog analyzed & discussed in detail as to why they either help to refute the claims of the IPCC or show CO2 is in fact a minor player.

      The IPCC claims the Sun cannot account for any significant climate change, but these papers and many others refute that notion. The Sun accounts for 95% of climate change over the past 400 years.

  6. Here is the abstract form this article:

    IT clearly says that a future grand solar minimum could not stop
    global warming.


    1. Another paper based entirely upon highly flawed climate models.

      4 part series on how climate models dismiss the role of the Sun in climate

  7. This post was also linked to an article published by The New American:

  8. Add to the list

    2013 Peer-Reviewed Study: ‘Contribution of the greenhouse effect of carbon-containing gases to global warming turns out to be insignificant’ – By S. V. Avakyan, writing for the Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    The Role of Solar Activity in Global Warming," by S. V. Avakyan. It appeared in the Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2013, Vol. 83, No. 3, pp. 275–285. Dr. Avakyan is "Head of the Laboratory of Aerospace Physical Optics at the Vavilov State Optical Institute and a leading researcher of the RAS Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory."
    The abstract reads: 'The author associates the recently observed climate warming and carbon dioxide concentration growth in the lower atmospheric layers with variations of solar–geomagnetic activity in global cloud formation and the significant decrease in the role of forests in carbon dioxide accumulation in the process of photosynthesis. The contribution of the greenhouse effect of carbon-containing gases to global warming turns out to be insignificant.'

  9. Oases of the Chinese Taklamakan Desert Greened Up In Sync With Solar Millenial Cycles - See more at:

  10. Good paper from 1999 on the role of solar forcing on climate:

  11. solar influence on PDO and APO