- ocean eddies,
- water cycle,
- "crucial components of the oceans" such as "the Gulf Stream, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current" [and ocean oscillations]
As the article mentions, typical climate models use a low resolution of 100 km, but much higher resolutions of 1 km or higher are required to skillfully model convection and clouds, far beyond the capability of current supercomputers. The author recommends a quarter billion dollars be spent to create international supercomputing centers for climate models, before the world spends trillions on mitigation based on the Precautionary Principle that may or may not be necessary.
As climate scientist Dr. Roger Pielke Sr. has pointed out, and contrary to popular belief, climate models are not based on "basic physics," rather are almost entirely comprised of parameterizations/fudge factors for most critical aspects of climate including convection and clouds. As the article below notes,
"simulations of climate change are very sensitive to some of the parameters [fudge factors] associated with these approximate representations of convective cloud systems"However, even if supercomputers are developed over the next decade capable of handling such high resolution, substantial doubt remains of the benefits for climate prediction due to the inherent limitations of chaos theory, multiple flawed assumptions in the model code, and inadequate observations to initialize such numeric models. These are some of the reasons why two recent papers instead call for a new stochastic approach to climate modeling.