*International Journal of Climatology*analyzes the temperature lapse rates of the Himalayas over the past 20 years and finds

"The annual cycle of the (near-surface temperature lapse rates) shows a distinct seasonal pattern, i.e. steepest in winter and shallowest in summer."This is exactly what the 33C Maxwell/Carnot/Clausius atmospheric mass/gravity/pressure theory of the greenhouse effect predicts.

Per the lapse rate equation

dT/dh = -g/Cp

where

dT = change in temperature with height

dh = change in height/geopotential altitude

g = gravitational acceleration constant = 9.8 meters/sec/sec

Cp = heat capacity at constant pressure

the temperature at any height or geopotential altitude is

dT/dh = -g/Cp

where

dT = change in temperature with height

dh = change in height/geopotential altitude

g = gravitational acceleration constant = 9.8 meters/sec/sec

Cp = heat capacity at constant pressure

the temperature at any height or geopotential altitude is

*a function of*and*inversely related to heat capacity Cp*. Thus any increase of Cp from water vapor will decrease the lapse rate and thus temperature at any height including at the surface (up to 25.5C as we previously calculated). Conversely, any decrease in Cp from decreased water vapor will increase or steepen the lapse rate and increase the temperature at any height including at the surface. This has absolutely nothing to do with "radiative forcing" from any greenhouse gases including water vapor itself.
Moist air is lighter and less dense than dry air. Due to the decreased solar insolation in winter, the resultant cold air will hold less water vapor, the air is drier and more dense, and therefore surface pressure, in general, increases. The decrease in atmospheric water vapor during winter decreases the heat capacity Cp, which by the lapse rate equation above is

*inversely*related to the lapse rate, thus increasing/steepening the lapse rate from the shallower wet rate (~6C/km) to the steeper dry rate (~9.8C/km), thereby causing cooling at the surface. Water vapor is thus demonstrated to be a negative-feedback cooling agent, not a positive-feedback warming agent as claimed by warmists and their climate models.
This is the same pattern noted in this new paper of 20 years of observations which show "a distinct seasonal pattern (of the lapse rates), i.e. steepest in winter and shallowest in summer." The theoretical basis for this is provided by Maxwell/Carnot/Clausius atmospheric mass/gravity/pressure theory of the greenhouse effect & the 'greenhouse equation,' and is completely independent of 'radiative forcing' from greenhouse gases.

**Comparison of temperature lapse rates from the northern to the southern slopes of the Himalayas**

Dambaru Ballab Kattel1,2,*,

Tandong Yao1,3,

Wei Yang1,3,

Yang Gao1,3 and

Lide Tian1,3

ABSTRACT: Based on 20-year (1985–2004) records of surface-air-temperature at 16 stations between the elevations of 3553 m and 4801 m a.s.l. in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (or the northern slopes of the eastern Himalayas), this paper examines the monthly, seasonal and annual characteristics of near-surface temperature lapse rates (TLRs). A linear regression model was fitted for the lapse rate calculation.

**The annual cycle of the TLR shows a distinct seasonal pattern, i.e. steepest in winter and shallowest in summer.**Results are partially consistent with those from the southern slopes of the central Himalayas, in particular in summer, and correspond to the warm, rainy and humid season. In response to the monsoonal effect, the released latent heat of water vapour condensation causes an increase in air temperature at higher elevations. Therefore, the TLR is shallowest in the summer. The considerable amount of solar radiation at higher elevations also causes a reduction of the TLR in this season. The lowest diurnal range of lapse rates for summer is associated with lower diurnal variability in net radiation due to cloud cover and relative humidity.

**The steepest TLR occurs in winter in association with intense cooling at higher elevations, corresponding to the continental**Lower insolation, deeper snow cover and a weaker inversion effect cause a lower diurnal range of TLR in this season. The observed contrast of winter TLR from the northern to southern slopes of the Himalayas is due to differences in elevation and topography, as well as the pronounced effect of cold air surges.

*dry*and cold air surges, and considerable snow-temperature feedback.
At any given moment the lapse rate above every position around the globe is in a state of constant variation due to local conditions which include latitude, time of day, season, winds, humidity, aerosol content and the radiative capability of the local atmosphere.

ReplyDeleteHowever, for the atmosphere around a planet to be retained all such variations from surface to space must net out to the average lapse rate determined by mass (or rather the heat capacity of that mass) and gravity.

Gravity is relevant in setting atmospheric density at the surface which determines what proportion of solar energy passing through can be diverted via conduction and convection to the mass of the atmospjhere.

Gravity also sets the amount of energy required to raise the mass of the atmosphere off the surface and keep it suspended.

The level of insolation then determines how high the mass of the atmospheric gases can rise against gravity.

Convection, both up and down, balances radiation from surface and atmosphere to space on the one hand with conduction between surface and atmosphere on the other hand so as to keep the system stable and thereby prevent the atmosphere from either falling to the ground or being lost to space.

Any thermal effect of the radiative capability of the atmosphere is negated by changes in convection.

Changes in convection do amount to a climate change but the surface temperature does not rise otherwise the balance between radiation to space and conduction from surface to atmosphere would be upset so as to permanently destabilise the system such that the atmosphere would be lost or rather would never have developed in the first place.

The convective changes that result from variation in radiative activity within the atmosphere are magnitudes less than we see as a result of ocean cycles and solar variability and could never be separated out from those other causes.

AGW theory proposes a warmer lower part of the atmosphere with a colder upper part of the atmosphere with the net amount of radiation to space remaining stable at the same quantity as radiation coming in from space.

If one has a colder stratosphere then the tropopause rises, convection rises higher and a greater proportion of the energy held by the atmosphere (holding it up against gravity) becomes potential energy which is not heat and does not radiate. The surface temperature would then not rise.

Only by increasing the mass or heat capacity of that mass can one raise surface temperature at a given level of insolation and strength of gravitational field.

See here:

http://www.newclimatemodel.com/greenhouse-confusion-resolved/

Published by Stephen Wilde July 16, 2008