- RealClimate admits doubling CO2 could only heat the oceans 0.002ºC at most
- Why Greenhouse Gases Won't Heat the Oceans
- Yes, the ocean has warmed; no, it’s not ‘global warming’ And warm water does not sink
Google translation from the Dutch "Climate Fraud" site:
Researchers have determined that the CO2 greenhouse effect does not affect sea level rise. There is an inverse relationship, because it turns out that the temperature of the atmosphere depends on the sea level. This is possible because a higher sea level, in turn, means that expansion has occurred because more heat (energy) is in the ocean. The researchers initially tried to find evidence of the AGW hypothesis that atmospheric warming by CO2 and / or CO2 IR radiation to the ocean forces it to heat up, but discovered contrary to expectation, in that this is not the case. Although this initially seemed to be the case in the last decades, the relationship turned around in 1940 to fall away completely. The warming came internally from the ocean and that is the cause of global warming and not the result. According to AGW are huge amounts of extra energy stored by global warming in the ocean. This extra amount of energy is expected to keep over time, the warming mode and is used as an excuse for the absence of the predicted temperatures. This despite the fact that the ocean since 1997 shows no further warming and this even decreases from 2005 (top 700 m), and the predictions of this ocean warming have also failed. The above findings are therefore a huge nail in the coffin of the AGW hypothesis because it indicates that the IR back-radiation from CO2 to the earth can not heat up sea water, and also not indirectly via the atmosphere. There is strictly unidirectional heat transfer from the global ocean to the atmosphere. I have already pointed this out and will now explain.
How is the ocean warmed?
Where does the energy come from being recorded? Into the ocean This is purely illustrative of the sun, of the incident sunlight on the water surface is at the equator only 3% is reflected and reaches 97% up to 100 meters deep, and is converted into heat. Two-thirds of this energy escapes to the surface by water evaporation. The water evaporation is dependent only on the temperature of the water and independent of the temperature of the atmosphere. Besides temperature, the evaporation does depend on various material properties, pressure, flow rates and convection (basically gravity).That increased greenhouse radiation by CO2 can warm the oceans is an AGW fable, the long-wave infrared radiation from the atmosphere has a low energy (wavelength) that can penetrate no deeper than a fraction of a millimeter (10 micrometers).This is much less than the boundary layer where evaporation takes place (500 micrometers), and that's the only thing the infrared radiation can do, help to evaporate water.
In the above diagram, the penetration depth of the IR radiation not even noticeable because these far right is off the scale over 13.5 micrometers. A close up of the IR field we see in the following chart.
This is all IR, so only the IR wavelengths of the sun walking to 7 microns (Most radiation from the sun is in the IR region). The wavelengths of CO2 derived are only between 13.5 and 16.5 microns, and here we see that this radiation can come. Only 5 to 10 microns deep the ocean surface is on average three degrees warmer than the atmosphere. Where the surface has occasionally been cooler than the atmosphere (due to wind), the atmosphere possible by guiding the top micrometers from the water will be heated, but also this will not result in water evaporation, and to global warming. The evaporation boundary layer has: a special temperature gradient as we shall see shortly. Apart from this the upper 700m of the ocean has 50 times as much mass as the entire atmosphere. The specific heat of water is 4 times higher than that of air, thus holding 200 times as much heat energy as the total atmosphere (for the overall ocean, this is even 1200 times as much). The ocean warms the atmosphere mainly by evaporation and not vice versa.
The boundary layer of the water evaporation
There is a very important phenomenon in the evaporation boundary layer of the surface occurs, the layer where water evaporates and enters the atmosphere.
Below is a very nice diagram ( Schematic plot of open ocean surface thermal structures ) that the temperature in water indicates depending on the depth below the surface. The top value on the y-axis indicates the 10 micron up to IR radiation comes true, the next value below it is already 1 mm deep (1000 microns) far beyond the range of IR radiation. the temperature rises up to the right, and curve (a) overnight (b) during the day.
In general, the temperature in the ocean higher from the bottom (2 ° C) to the surface (17 ° C). However, in the thin film of the upper 500 microns, we see that this is suddenly reversed smoothly, it is becoming increasingly cooler closer to the surface area increases. This is the boundary layer, from where water evaporation takes place, and here the temperature drops a few tenths of a degree. This immediately indicates that the atmosphere above the water is cooler than the water. We see that this temperature gradient in the boundary layer persists overnight (a). Daytime (b) when the sun shines we see the temperature profile of the upper few meters a whole shift to higher temperatures. This is therefore the result of the solar radiation that heats the sea water clearly, and the closer to the surface, the stronger the warming. But despite that, there is the negative temperature gradient in the boundary layer while the water evaporation increases. Look what happens next when the sun goes down. The ocean surface cools by evaporation and the profile falls back to a situation Imagines that the greenhouse effect works day and night, and thus send radiation toward the ocean surface. Any guidance is also independent. But look at the profile, the first few meters below the boundary layer warms night totally on the contrary it has slumped to a straight line or the temperature is uneven and there is no heat transfer. That this is not possible we already knew from the low penetration of IR radiation, but the day and night profile is a second proof of the impossibility of global ocean CO2 or even the natural greenhouse effect . We see here is that this is not possible, by conduction. above temperature profiles are provided by various studies as Donlon et al ., the following sentence from this study says "In all cases, the absorption of shortwave radiation in the molecular boundary skin layer is not enough to overcome the heat loss due to the sensible and latent heat fluxes, and the SSTskin remains cooler than the water beneath. ".Or even the absorption of the sunlight in the vaporization boundary layer is always proved to be insufficient to compensate for the heat loss due to vaporization (latent heat) and guide the boundary layer is always cooler than the water below it. So there is no chance for the weak IR radiation to target other than additional water evaporation (= cooling) something out.
Specific phenomena in the boundary layer
For the diehards, I can dive a little further into the phenomena in the boundary layer, so there is a schedule in the paper Estimating Sea Surface Temperature From Infrared Satellite and In Situ Temperature Data . It shows the three most common situations.
Left the free convection at low wind speeds. See that decreasing the temperature in the boundary layer of water we saw before, must first also extend over the atmosphere. This is a typical feature that we know by heat transfer by conduction, and there we can also see the direction of heat conduction.
Additionally, we see indicates that there are three types of heat energy play a role that all flows from ocean to atmosphere. This concerns guide (5%), radiation (20%) and latent heat (70%) of the water vapor. water in the boundary layer is continuously cooled down by the evaporation (the formation of vapor requires heat energy, and extracts this to the water) , drops down and is replaced by warmer water underneath (uplift). It is worth a moment to stand still here, because what is the net result where ocean and atmosphere get in touch with each other? The result of water evaporation is that the ocean continuously cools . At higher wind speeds (middle) forced convection arises. The temperature difference is less here because there are turbulence which allows for a more rapid replacement of hot water by the cold. At high wind speeds (on the right) may periodically break down the boundary layer, wherein the temperature difference in the boundary layer of the ocean is constant. But still remains higher than the temperature of the atmosphere and most of them are heat conduction from the ocean to the atmosphere place. Key points:
- CO2 radiation can not heat the ocean
- The greenhouse effect can not heat the ocean
- The atmosphere can not heat the ocean
- Heat transfer from the atmosphere ensures water evaporation
- Water Evaporation cools the ocean off
- The ocean warms the atmosphere in three ways
relevant links: The influence of solar intensity at the ocean The ocean is cooler and the sea level rise decreases Climate models in the error affects ocean is much greater
Oceanographer Dr.. Robert E. Stevenson writes in his report on page 8:
The atmosphere can not warm until the under lying surface warms first. The lower atmosphere is transparent to direct solar radiation, Preventing it from being Significantly warmed by sunlight alone. The surface atmosphere osmanthus gets its warmth in three ways: from direct contact with the oceans, from infrared radiation off the ocean surface, and, from the removal of latent heat from the ocean by evaporation. Consequently, the temperature of the lower atmosphere is Largely Determined by the temperature of the ocean.
Warming the ocean is not a simple matter, not like heating a small glass of water. The first thing to remember Is that the ocean is not warmed by the overlying air.
Is the heating and/or evaporation properties of the ocean affected by it's Ph balance?ReplyDelete
No, it is a function of penetration depth of infrared radiation from greenhouse gases, which is only a few millionths of a meter, and does not change with pH.Delete
Anyone that has seen a hot water heater will note that the heater is on the bottom. It heats the water around the element and the heated water rises to be replaced by the colder water which is heated, ad infinitum. If the heater was on the top, the top portion (above the heater would get hot, the thermostat would shut off and the rest of the tank would stay cold. The rest of the tank stays col because HOT water rises, and it is not the best conductor of heat. It stagers the imagination as to how anyone can conceive of the sun shining down on the ocean making the ocean heat to any appreciable depth.ReplyDelete
Well, what really staggers the imagination is how anyone can conceive of infrared radiation from greenhouse gases making the ocean heat to any appreciable depth.Delete
Solar wavelengths penetrate water up to 20+ meters, while IR penetrates only a few millionths of a meter.
There is another problem too. Many have claimed that CO2 will stay in the atmosphere a very long time. Think about the melt water from Greenland and how much CO2 it will absorb as sea levels rise. I just read an article predicting 35 billion tons (or was it tonnes? ) will be absorbed for every 200,000 cubic Km of ice melt flowing into the oceans. If true, how much and how effectively will the ocean strip out of atmosphere this immense amount of CO2. Of course, there are millions of cubic km of ice to be melted (including Antarctica). Somehow, this planet has kept the CO2 from running away during all the previous ice ages.Delete
Please update the links: "relevant links: The influence of solar intensity at the ocean The ocean is cooler and the sea level rise decreases Climate models in the error affects ocean is much greater"ReplyDelete
This is outstanding work, I would love to have any/all references as to offer sound argument to my peers.